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中国空天飞机深夜发射,在太空放出神秘设备

发布者: 天蓝蓝 | 发布时间: 2023-12-15 20:53| 查看数: 357| 评论数: 5|帖子模式

我国刚刚成功发射了“可重复使用试验航天器”。据环球网报道,在12月14日深夜,我国在酒泉卫星发射中心使用一枚长征二号F运载火箭,成功地发射了一架可重复使用的试验航天器。这是我国第三次成功发射可重复使用试验航天器,标志着中国的“空天飞机”进入实用化。


顾名思义,“可重复使用试验航天器”就是可进行多次太空旅行的航天器。当今世界,绝大部分的返回式航天器都是一次性产品,由运载火箭送入太空轨道,执行完任务后再返回地球,但无法再次使用,包括各种返回式卫星和太空飞船。
美苏在上世纪80年代曾研制航天飞机并进行了大量应用,但航天飞机这种在冷战时期的产物有许多缺点,最突出的缺点太重太贵,航天飞机是百吨量级的大家伙,造价更是贵的没朋友了,一共就执行了135次的飞行任务,即使是美国也有些负担不起。


在几架航天飞机相继报废后,美国方面就一直想要重新研制一款廉价的使用灵活的可重复使用的航天器。于是美国研制出了X-37B轨道试验飞行器,目前已经执行了6次长期轨道飞行任务,最多的一次是长达908天的在轨飞行。X-37B空天飞机方归属,不是负责常规太空探索的美国宇航局,而是美国太空军,这就直接体现出了X-37B项目的军事属性。
X-37B空天飞机具有较高的军事价值,能够在一小时左右的时间里完成绕地球一周的飞行。这款航天器是目前美军中唯一有可能实现“一小时全球打击”构想的装备。如果美军能够为X-37B配备对地打击武器,那就可以变身为“轨道轰炸机,”随时从他国的头顶发起攻击。
“可重复使用试验航天器”实际上是一种比美国已经退役的航天飞机更轻便,更灵巧,更廉价的新一代“空天飞机”。具有自主飞行能力与水平降落能力。


目前使用常规运载火箭发射的“可重复使用试验航天器”,主要用于验证空天飞机具备在轨道空间进行自主飞行,并水平降落在常规机场的能力。接下来,只需要将用于起飞的运载火箭替换为具备水平起飞能力的复合动力发动机,那么空天飞机就将像普通飞机一样起飞和降落,入轨和返回将十分廉价和便捷,人类的太空飞行将实现一个大飞跃。
中国的“可重复使用试验航天器”,大概的描述是:这是一架重量5吨左右的“空天飞机”,主要性能与美国X-37相似。由长征二号F运载火箭,可长时间在轨,可自主返回并在机场水平降落,且可以重复多次使用。“可重复使用试验航天器”空天飞机、运载器和航天器等多功能于一身,由操作人员在地面进行遥控操作,可在180至920公里高度的天空轨道上机动飞行。


中国没有走美苏那种造价昂贵的航天飞机的弯路,而是一步就跨入实用型的灵巧的空天飞机技术领域。这是一个比较可行的、而且经济和技术上都比较可承受的一个方案。
由于使用长征二号F运载火箭发射入轨,因此中国的“可重复使用试验航天器”的重量和尺寸应该符合长征二号F运载火箭的限制要求,大概的外形体量应该与我国的太空实验室或神舟载人飞船接近。入轨中国的“可重复使用试验航天器”总体设计思想与美国X-37B相似,那么体量也应该是一架5吨左右的空天飞机,可携带2~3吨的载荷。
中国曾于2020年9月,在酒泉卫星发射中心,使用长征二号F运载火箭,首次成功发射了“可重复使用试验航天器”,这架“空天飞机”曾在轨道上与美国在轨的X-37比翼齐飞。


随后中国在2022年8月第二次发射“可重复使用试验航天器”,这次试验的在轨时间长达270天,进行了复杂的轨道试验内容。这次长时间的在轨试验,很可能搭载了非常多的实验载荷,同时也对可重复使用航天器的在轨道长期运行可靠性,以及在轨执行各种任务的潜力做了充分验证。
“可重复使用试验航天器”的最大价值在具备轨道机动能力和载荷投送能力。可以在轨完成复杂的太空作业,例如在轨摧毁或捕获航天器,进行航天器维修,为其他的航天器加入燃料,补充燃料和电力,实现与太空站的对接,或者实现特定载荷的转移或释放(比如传说中的轨道轰炸机)。


美国太空军曾发现,我国第二次发射的“可重复使用试验航天器”在太空中飞行时,曾从内部释放出一个“神秘设备”。美方对于“神秘设备”的具体用途,也是摸不着头脑,他们推测这是中国在为未来的“太空战斗机”做准备。
目前,全世界只有中国和美国拥有多次在轨的“可重复使用试验航天器”,而且中美都不约而同地对这种“空天飞机”高度保密,没有人知道美国X-37在轨两年时间都干了啥,也没有人知道中国的“可重复使用试验航天器”的具体在轨任务,甚至连长啥模样都不知道。
“可重复使用试验航天器”非常低调,官方无任何现场发射或该型航天器的画面释出,非常神秘,与中国发射载人飞船和其他航天器时的公开宣称完全不同。因此被戏称为“过于先进,不便展示”。


不过,无论美国太空军如何以己度人,我国这款“可重复使用试验航天器”,是为了和平利用太空而展开的试验探索性项目。我国航天部门也明确表示,这次发射试验是在为和平利用太空提供技术支撑。
重要的事情说三遍:我们是民用的,是民用的,是民用的! 1.jpeg

最新评论

点评 回复 天蓝蓝 发表于 2023-12-15 20:54:22

点评 回复 天蓝蓝 发表于 2023-12-15 20:55:57
[color=var(--yt-spec-text-primary)][size=1.3]@victorkrawchuk9141[color=var(--yt-endpoint-color,var(--yt-spec-text-primary))]7 hours ago

[color=var(--yt-spec-text-primary)]In the US, will non-T-Mobile cellphones be able to use Starlink Direct-to-Cell service to make emergency 911/SOS calls?  Today, cellphones without a SIM card can make emergency calls.  If so, Starlink Direct-to-Cell service could have a tremendous benefit to everyone regardless of their providers.  Thank you for your video, I also had no idea that China's copycat X-37B just launched...!


点评 回复 天蓝蓝 发表于 2023-12-15 20:56:13

@jason_m_schmidt622
4 hours ago
Of course China built their own. What does the United States military possess that would fit in a large refrigerator sized cargo bay weighing roughly 600 pounds? ????
点评 回复 天蓝蓝 发表于 2023-12-15 20:58:51
https://spacenews.com/china-laun ... ane-for-third-time/

Liftoff of the Long March 2F carrying Shenzhou-12 at 9:22 p.m. Eastern, June 16, 2021.
Liftoff of the Long March 2F carrying Shenzhou-12 at 9:22 p.m. Eastern, June 16, 2021. Credit: CASC
HELSINKI — China launched its experimental reusable spacecraft for the third time Thursday while maintaining strict secrecy around the mission.

A Long March 2F rocket lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in the Gobi Desert Dec. 14, sending a “reusable test spacecraft” into low Earth orbit, Chinese language state media Xinhua reported.

Airspace closure notices suggest a launch time of around 10:00 a.m. Eastern (1500 UTC), but the report, published within an hour of expected launch, did not provide a time. The terse report stated that the test spacecraft will “operate in orbit for a period of time” before returning to its intended landing site in China.

“During this period, reusable technology verification and space science experiments will be carried out as planned to provide technical support for the peaceful use of space,” the report read, according to a machine translation.

The gap between the spacecraft’s first and second missions—launching in 2020 and 2022 respectively—was one year and 11 months. The third launch comes just over seven months after the spacecraft returned to Earth after its 276-day-long second mission.

The shortened time between missions suggests the spacecraft’s developer, the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), has made progress in aspects relating to reusability of the spacecraft.

U.S. Space Force space domain awareness later cataloged the spacecraft in a 333 by 348-kilometer-altitude orbit inclined by 50 degrees. Space launch activity observer Jonathan McDowell estimated launch occurred at around 1412 UTC, based on the orbital data.

China has revealed no details of its experimental reusable spacecraft project. No images of any of the launches have been published. The suspected spaceplane is launched vertically on a Long March 2F, a rocket used to launch China’s Shenzhou crewed missions.

The launcher has a payload capacity of just over eight metric tons to low Earth orbit. This suggests that the spacecraft could be somewhat similar in size and function to U.S. Air Force’s X-37B spaceplane.

This notion is reinforced by apparent images of the payload fairing wreckage recovered from the second launch and posted on the Sina Weibo social media site. The images give possible clues as to the dimensions and shape of the spacecraft.

Fairing of CZ2F rocket which launched CSSHQ on Aug 5 being openly exhibited in Henan Jiyuan No.1 middle school. If the bumps are spare spaces for wings, CSSHQ’s wingspan could be larger than fairing’s diameter 4.2m. HD: https://t.co/aPZ6MvDdZq Credit: TikTok Douyin@hnsjydyzx pic.twitter.com/6i3mXPvFLe

— CNSA Watcher (@CNSAWatcher) August 14, 2022
The previous missions included deploying satellites into orbit and may have involved scientific and other experiments. The spacecraft also performed numerous small and much larger orbital maneuvers during its second flight. The third flight will likely have a different scope and seek to further test the spacecraft’s capabilities.

The reusable spacecraft may be the orbital segment which will operate in combination with a reusable suborbital first stage. A reusable suborbital spacecraft was tested for the first time in 2021. A second mission launched in August 2022. The suborbital craft uses a vertical takeoff and a horizontal landing.

CASC has previously stated plans to develop a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) space transportation system. CASC’s spaceplane project last year acquired national level funding from the Natural Science Foundation of China.

Sino-U.S. space competition
The U.S. started launching its reusable X-37B in 2010. It is set to launch on its seventh mission on a Falcon Heavy rocket later this month. The launch has been hit with delays in recent days. The mission will test new orbital regimes, experiment with space domain awareness technologies, and investigate radiation effects on materials provided by NASA.

The Chinese and Boeing’s X-37B projects may, despite opacity surrounding respective intentions and capabilities, be illustrative of the broader space situation.

“Based on what little information we have, I think the Shenlong [Chinese spaceplane] and the X-37B are likely doing many of the same missions,” Brian Weeden, Director of Program Planning at the Secure World Foundation, told SpaceNews. “That is, primarily being used for experimenting and testing new technologies, sensors, and perhaps even operational practices.

“I think both programs are reflective of the current relationship between the US and China,” says Weeden. “Each sees the other’s secretive spaceplane program as a potential threat and destabilizing weapon, while insisting that their own program is important but benign.”

“That to me signals that we are in the midst of a security dilemma in space, where actions taken by both sides to reinforce their own security end up adding to the instability in the overall relationship.”

Mission        Launch Date        Landing Date        Duration        Time Since Previous Mission        Launch Site        Landing Site
Mission 1        September 4, 2020        September 6, 2020        2 days        N/A        Jiuquan spaceport        Lop Nur air base
Mission 2        August 4, 2022        May 8, 2023        ~276 days        1 year, 11 months        Jiuquan spaceport        Lop Nur air base
Mission 3        December 14, 2023        N/A        N/A        7 months, 6 days        Jiuquan spaceport        N/A
Mission information for China’s experimental reusable spacecraft.
The development of reusable spacecraft technology is part of China’s broader strategy to become a major spacefaring nation. Chinese President Xi Jinping has set a national goal for China to become a powerful aerospace country. Xi also noted the space industry to be a critical element of overall national strategy.

Further Chinese efforts
CASIC, a sister giant defense and space contractor, is working on its own TSTO spaceplane, named Tengyun.

Chinese commercial firm Space Transportation raised more than $46.3 million for its hypersonic spaceplane plans in 2021. The firm stated last year it was aiming for space tourism test flights in 2025.

China has been seeking to boost its flexibility and range of access to space in recent years. In 2014 the government allowed private capital into the space sector to help foster a commercial space sector.

Commercial launch firms now operate a number of solid and liquid launch vehicles. Hop tests are now underway at Jiuquan as firms attempt to develop reusable rocket capabilities.

CASC is meanwhile developing a super heavy-lift reusable launch vehicle named Long March 9. The Long March 10, intended to launch crew and take astronauts to the moon, will have a potentially reusable first stage.

点评 回复 天蓝蓝 发表于 2023-12-15 21:00:04
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/scie ... ft-space-force.html

The NEW space race: China launches top-secret military plane into orbit just one day after US' delayed mystery launch - and Space Force chief says timing is 'no coincidence'
Space Force said it's 'extremely interested' in China's covert CSSHQ spacecraft
Pics of this Chinese rival to Space Force's classified X-37B craft have yet to leak
READ MORE: Secret unmanned US spaceship, X-37B, causes chaos as it lands in Florida with residents fearing it was UFO — after its sonic boom rocked houses
By MATTHEW PHELAN SENIOR SCIENCE REPORTER FOR DAILYMAIL.COM

PUBLISHED: 14:46 EST, 15 December 2023 | UPDATED: 14:47 EST, 15 December 2023

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China successfully launched its top secret, unmanned spacecraft Thursday evening, which the US Space Force chief said was 'no coincidence.'

The US had planned to launch its 'spy' plan on Wednesday, but the mission was grounded due to technical issues.

'It's probably no coincidence that they're trying to match us in timing and sequence of this,' General Chance Saltzman, Space Force's Chief of Space Operations, said.

An announcement in the Chinese press described the purpose of the space plane as providing 'technical support for the peaceful use of space' - but the nation has kept details under wraps, as has American officials about their craft.

China successfully launched its top secret, unmanned spacecraft — the Asian superpower's answer to the US Space Force's own X-37B unmanned, covert spaceplane — into orbit for the third time this past Thursday. Its purpose: 'technical support for the peaceful use of space'
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China successfully launched its top secret, unmanned spacecraft — the Asian superpower's answer to the US Space Force's own X-37B unmanned, covert spaceplane — into orbit for the third time this past Thursday. Its purpose: 'technical support for the peaceful use of space'

But the current Chief of Space Operations for US Space Force, General Chance Saltzman (above), told reporters that the timing appeared linked to the cancelation of America's plan to relaunch the X-37B back into space for another classified mission this past Monday
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But the current Chief of Space Operations for US Space Force, General Chance Saltzman (above), told reporters that the timing appeared linked to the cancelation of America's plan to relaunch the X-37B back into space for another classified mission this past Monday

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'These are the two of the most watched objects on orbit while they're on orbit,' Saltzman told reporters on Wednesday after trouble with a SpaceX rocket scuttled Monday's planned X-37B launch.

Speaking at the Space Force Association's Spacepower Conference in Orlando, General Saltzman emphasized the sophistication of these unmanned and reusable orbital spycrafts, which can offer greater operational security than spy satellites.

'The ability to put something into orbit, do some things, and bring it home and take a look at the results is powerful,' Saltzman said.

'It's no surprise that the Chinese are extremely interested in our spaceplane,' he said. 'And we're extremely interested in theirs.'

Nevertheless — despite years of promo photos of America's Boeing-designed X-37B covert spacecraft — no images of its Chinese rival have leaked to the public.


The closest media has come to seeing the craft, dubbed the Chinese reusable experimental spacecraft, or CSSHQ, may likely have been footage of an exhibit at the Henan Jiyuan No.1 middle school in China in August of 2022.

Video of the exhibit, an outdoor display of a crashed Long March 2F rocket responsible for launching the CSSHQ into orbit, was poured over by aerospace industry watchers for clues about its one-time covert spycraft payload.

Images of this Long March 2F wreckage, recovered from the second CSSHQ launch, bolstered rumors that the rocket's payload capacity of nearly eight metric tons would indicate that CSSHQ is similar in size to the X-37B, according to SpaceNews.

The video appeared first on China's Sina Weibo social media site, then TikTok, YouTube and X.

The closest media has come to seeing China's secret spacecraft, dubbed the Chinese reusable experimental spacecraft, or CSSHQ, may likely have been footage of an exhibit at a middle school in China in 2022 - posted first to China's Sina Weibo social media site, then X (above)
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The closest media has come to seeing China's secret spacecraft, dubbed the Chinese reusable experimental spacecraft, or CSSHQ, may likely have been footage of an exhibit at a middle school in China in 2022 - posted first to China's Sina Weibo social media site, then X (above)

This Thursday's CSSHQ launch comes hot on the heels of its last covert mission seven months ago: a lengthy 276-day operation that began on August 4, 2022.

By comparison, CSSHQ's first launch, in September 2020, lasted only two days.

According to a report by China's Xinhua News Agency, this third launch aims to conduct 'reusable technology verification' and 'space science experiments' as part of 'technical support for the peaceful use of space.'

The launch of the CSSHQ encased in a Long March 2F rocket, occurred at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center based in northwestern China.

The US Space Force 'spy' space shuttle X-37B (above)  was due to launch by SpaceX as part of a classified mission Monday but was forced to stand down minutes before it was due to take off
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The US Space Force 'spy' space shuttle X-37B (above)  was due to launch by SpaceX as part of a classified mission Monday but was forced to stand down minutes before it was due to take off

Once a US Air Force project, the X-37B can theoretically carry weapons into space, possibly to defend US satellites against anti-satellite weapons
China and Russia have accused the US government of using the craft as a bomber
Once a US Air Force project, the X-37B can theoretically carry weapons into space, possibly to defend US satellites against anti-satellite weapons. China and Russia have accused the US of using the craft as a bomber. X-37B has been performing its classified missions since 2010

The original purpose for the Long March 2F was transport for Chinese astronaut crews headed into Earth's orbit, but the rocket has been modified to carry China's unpiloted robotic spaceplane as its payload.

The X-37B was due to be launched by SpaceX as part of a classified mission Monday, but it was forced to stand down just minutes before it took off.

Elon Musk's SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket bearing the covert spacecraft was scheduled to take off at 8:14pm ET from NASA's Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida.

But a reported 'ground issue' resulted in the mission being axed at the eleventh hour.

'Standing down from tonight’s Falcon Heavy launch due to a ground side issue,' a statement from SpaceX said.

'Vehicle and payload remain healthy. The team is resetting for the next launch opportunity of the USSF-52 mission, which is no earlier than tomorrow night.'

Monday's mission would have been the secretive X-37B's seventh since it debuted in 2010, and most of the craft's payload is classified.

The X-37B can theoretically carry weapons into space, possibly to defend US satellites against anti-satellite weapons.

While China and Russia have accused the US of using the craft as a bomber, other experts have speculated that the Space Force craft is used to run spy missions: Keep an eye on Chinese space operations or test US reconnaissance systems.

WHAT IS THE MYSTERIOUS X-37B ORBITAL TEST VEHICLE?
The US Air Force's unmanned X-37B space plane has flown a number of secret missions to date.

Each time it has carried a mystery payload on long-duration flights in Earth orbit.

The spacecraft looks similar to Nasa's space shuttle but is much smaller. The X-37B is about 29ft (8.8m) long and 9.5ft (2.9 m) tall.

Like a shuttle, X-37B is blasted into orbit by a rocket. However, it lands using a runway like a normal aircraft. The X-37B is too small to carry people onboard, but does have a cargo bay similar to that of a pickup truck, which is just large enough to carry a small satellite
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Like a shuttle, X-37B is blasted into orbit by a rocket. However, it lands using a runway like a normal aircraft. The X-37B is too small to carry people onboard, but does have a cargo bay similar to that of a pickup truck, which is just large enough to carry a small satellite

It has a wingspan of just less than 15ft (4.6 m). At launch, it weighs 11,000lbs (4,990kg).

The craft is taken into orbit on a rocket but lands like the space shuttle by gliding down to Earth.

Its main mission payload is a mystery, although Nasa has revealed it has a hauled a number of materials experiments aboard into space.
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